Saturday, April 4, 2020

Analysis of Moral Dilemma essays

Analysis of Moral Dilemma essays Philosophers have studied moral concepts of right and wrong for millennia. During this time, great thinkers like Plato, Aristotle, Bentham, and Kant have developed a number of carefully reasoned and eloquent approaches to moral questions. These approaches in the field of ethics can span from metaethics (the core of ethical principles or universal truths) to the field of normative ethics (which takes a much more practical approach to solving specific problems) to the field of applied ethics (which looks at specific issues like abortion or animal rights) (The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Each of these fields of ethics has sparked some often surprisingly elegant approaches to difficult ethical problems. However, in the real word, moral decisions are often much more difficult and confusing than they appear during reasoned ethical analysis. Moral dilemmas like the following illustrate the profound difficulty in coming to an ethical decision under truly trying and confusing circumstances. Imagine that you are an inmate in a concentration camp, and your son is about to be hung by a sadistic prison guard for attempting to escape. The guard wants you to pull out the chair from underneath your son, effectively killing him. The guard says that if you refuse to pull out the chair, he will kill your son and another, innocent, inmate as well. There is no doubt that the guard will carry out his actions. If you decide to pull out the chair from under your son, there are a number of potential consequences, both good and bad. Importantly, if the guard is true to his word, you will have saved the life of another innocent inmate. This is clearly a positive moral action, as preserving human life, especially innocent human life is essentially universally morally desirable. In saving this man's life, you spare both his personal agony, but spare his family and friends f...

Sunday, March 8, 2020

HOPE Foundation essays

HOPE Foundation essays In Georgia, there is a program going on that helps out the student immensely. The Georgia State Lottery is used as a device to send hard-working students to college for free. Since the start of the lottery, over 488,00 kids have gone to college on the HOPE scholarship due to the lottery (Message from the President 1). Also, the lottery helps pay for pre-kindergarten facilities and programs, as well as computer and technology upgrades for their high schools through the HOPE foundation. North Carolina needs to take a serious look at the revenue Georgia brings from its lottery and think how it could be beneficial for North Carolina students. First, the lottery helps out a tremendous amount of students through the HOPE program. The way that the Hope scholarship works is that all Georgia high school students that graduates with a 'B' average or higher becomes eligible to receive a grant to help cover the cost of tuition, book, and mandatory fees at any public Georgia college or university and a $3,000 dollar scholarship to any private college (Educational Uses of Lottery Proceeds 1). Also, they will provide full tuition, books, and fees to any technical institute in the state of Georgia. That sounds like a whole lot of incentive for young adults to make a 'B' average in school. I just don't understand why North Carolina does not have the same incentive for our children. To keep the college student a good student, you must also keep a 'B' average in college to keep your scholarship. Georgia has given more than 1 billion dollars toward college bound students since 1993 (HOPE scholarship 1). North Carolina has no pro grams of this sort. Two years after starting college, HOPE recipients have a higher G.P.A. (grade point average), and have earned more credit hours than their counterparts who do not have the HOPE scholarship according to The Council For School Performance (Council for School Perfo ...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Microbial physiology and culture (Practical Oxygen Transfer in a Essay

Microbial physiology and culture (Practical Oxygen Transfer in a Stirred Tank Reactor) - Essay Example In this experiment, this method is used in the determination of KLa. This process is important since it is applied in many fermentation processes which undergo aerobic reactions. This allows meeting the necessary metabolic demands of aerobic microorganisms. In this process, air is passed through a reactor at a constant flow rate at given speed in revolutions per minute. From the data, CL and time, it’s able to calculate KLa using the formula. Drawing a graph of  against time produces a straight line whose gradient is KLa (Karimi, 2013). Question 1 RPM = 200 From the graph, Thus M=0.0594 KLa=3.564 RPM at 400 From the graph, Thus Therefore the slope, m=0.0146 Thus, KLa = 0.0146*60 = 0.876 h-1 RPM at 600 From the graph, Thus Therefore the slope, m=0.0343 Thus, KLa = 0.0343*60 = 2.058 h-1 RPM at 800 From the graph, Thus Therefore the slope, m=0.0344 Thus, KLa = 0.0344*60 = 2.064h-1 Second practical Flow rate 0.5 Rpm 500 From the graph, Thus Therefore the slope, m=0.0114 Thus, KLa = 0.0114*60 = 0.684h-1 Flow rate 1.50 Rpm 500 Start air concentration 5.7 From the graph, Thus Therefore the slope, m= Thus, KLa = *60 = 2.07h-1 Flow rate 2.0 Rpm 500 Start air concentration 5.7 From the graph, Thus Therefore the slope, m= 0.0594 Thus, KLa = 0.0594*60 = 3.564h-1 Question 2 KLa F N Log KLa Log N 3.564 1 200 0.551938 2.30103 2.058 1 600 0.313445 2.778151 2.064 1 800 0.31471 2.90309 Since Log KLa= y log N + constant From the graph, The equation y=-0.4234X + 1.5199 Therefore the constant y=0.4234 KLa F N Log KLa Log F 0.684 0.5 500 -0.16494 -0.30103 2.07 1 500 0.31597 0 3.564 1.5 500 0.551938 0.176091 Since Log KLa= X log F + constant From the graph, The equation y=-1.5127X + 0.2973 Therefore the constant x=1.5127 Question 3 Factors affecting KLa in STR: 1. Culture Conditions 2. Operation of the fermenter 3. Impeller Design Question 4 Increase in the values of the above stated factors reduces the time for the dissolved oxygen concentration. Question 5 Why KLa ra ther than KL It is extremely impossible to measure KL alone. Therefore, to make KL measurable it has to be combined with a to form KLa (Volumetric mass – transfer coefficient) which is easier to determine Question 6 Polarographic oxygen electrode measure Polarographic system is used to measure dissolved oxygen. In this system, the measurement device known as a transducer is the Clark oxygen electrode. An oxygen monitor is the processing (coupling Device) and the recording device is a computer aided data system. Question 7 Importance of KLa KLa is important since it facilitates establishment of efficiency and also it helps in quantifying effects of operating variables that has to be applied on the provision of oxygen. Question 8 Techniques of determining KLa Sulfite oxidation technique In this process, the Oxygen transfer rate is determined by the oxidation of sulfite solution. Gassing-out techniques In this process, the estimation of KLa is done by monitoring the increase of dissolved oxygen in during the process of aeration and agitation. Question 9 From the graphing and the trend of the graph, it can be determined that as the agitation speed increases, the time taken for the dissolved oxygen to reach dissolved oxygen concentration is shortened. Bibliography Karimi, A., 2013. Oxygen mass transfer in a stirred tank bioreactor using different

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Are Black Afro Caribbean boys underachieving within the Education Dissertation - 1

Are Black Afro Caribbean boys underachieving within the Education system that are born in the UK - Dissertation Example However, it is also important to understand that success is about opportunity. In the case of Black Afro Caribbean boys, the opportunity for them may also rely on the level of encouragement given to them for success. These children are mostly encouraged to participate in sports, dance or music, but not on professions such as in line with politics and law. The sole purpose is to make them role models in arts and entertainment (BBC News, 2011). Thus, these children are given less substantial background on politics and law but they are rather given much exposure in areas such as sports, dance or music. Certainly, there are different perceptions or ideas about achieving and under achieving. In short, the perception about success may vary. This means that Black Afro Caribbean boys can become successful when it comes to the opportunity given to them but not on areas where they are not given much exposure or encouragement. Prior to the understanding of underachieving among Black Afro Caribb ean boys within the UK’s education system, it is important to understand the derivation of acknowledgement of achievement. Achievement in the academe is given greater weight in the measurement of one’s level of attainment in life. Education particularly in the UK is given with great importance. That is why performing better in the academe has become a good measure of one’s success. There is only secondary evaluation given to areas which pertain to talents and skills. In line with this, Black Afro Caribbean boys are usually secluded from academic evaluation due to the fact that they are much exposed to sports, dance, music and other skill and talent related areas. However, the issue of racial discrimination especially among teachers on black Caribbean pupils exists in the education system (Thomas et al., 2009). In this way, the entire evaluation system may not be having enough solid foundation for concise evaluative process. Thus, more relevant bases are necessar y in order to find out how exactly black Caribbean pupils are performing in school. Objectives It is in line with this that the proponent of this paper tries to evaluate and find out if Black Afro Caribbean boys are really underachieving in the academe provided that they are much exposed to sports, dance, and music and even susceptible to racial discrimination. On the other hand, it is also part of this paper to define what exactly are the bases or standards used in evaluating under achievement among Black Afro Caribbean boys. The proponent will particularly answer the following questions at the end of the study. 1. What are the reasons why children underachieve in education? 2. Are black Afro Caribbean boys especially under achieving within the education system in the UK? 3. What are the reasons and effects of different education system in the UK on black afro Caribbean’s boys lerning? 4. What are the prevailing perception and acknowledgement of achieving and under achieving ? 5. How and where does the acknowledgement of achievement derive? 6. Do black afro Caribbean boys have the same opportunities or expectations to achieve? 7. Are black afro Caribbean boys affected by the lack of male role models? 8. Do teachers have low expectations of social groups such as looked after children, asylum seekers, single parented families and the disabled etc? Methodology The proponent in general would therefore investigate the reasons why

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Sexual Selection and Human Evolution Theories

Sexual Selection and Human Evolution Theories Miller, G.F. A review of sexual selection and human evolution: How mate choice shaped human nature Natural selection shapes species to adapt to their environments and arises from individual differences in survival ability- cannot favour ornamental traits that decrease survivorship. However, it is not sufficient to account for male traits such as peacocks tail that do not enhance survivorship but rather jeopardize it. Darwin argued that in species with sexual reproduction traits that improved ones chances in mate competition were selected for regardless of their negative effects for survival. Furthermore, Darwin emphasized the importance of female choice and male competition within the sexual selection because the former evokes the latter. However, Darwin does not investigate the origins of female preference (Ridley, M). Sexual selection was neglected for a long time because it implied the major evolutionary importance of female choice and it was not well accepted by the contemporaries of Darwin. Darwin: evolution is differential reproduction rather than differential reproduction. Novel concept. Hard to do mathematical analysis. Alfred Russell Wallace who wrote about natural selection at the same time with Darwin believed that exaggerated male ornaments and traits did not have an adaptive purpose and did not result from female choice but from good health and genes that allowed males to spend resources on display. He suggested that females are under stronger natural selection to have less ornamentation to avoid attention from predators because they spend lot of time near their offspring (Miller, 2000). Fisher (1930) believed that mate selection criteria were biological and thus, under natural selection. He suggested that male sexual ornaments served as indicators of high fitness and good genetic quality and would be selected by females (Miller, 2000). Furthermore, he coined the term runaway sexual selection, which suggests an evolutionary feedback mechanism where female preferences reinforce and perpetuate the traits selected for in males. In the case of runaway selection females choose to mate with males who display a certain trait, subsequently, it will be passed on to the offspring who will then have the trait that makes them more attractive mates. This ultimately leads to phenomenon such as peacocks tail. In Fishers model the male trait was not deleterious at the start but with females preferring a particular characteristic it passed its optimum cost-benefit ratio, and ultimately, costly traits arise as the outcome of runaway sexual selection (Ridley). Zahavi. Trivers (1972) was the first to explain the different intensity of sexual selection in males and females through unequal amount of parental investment. The production of gametes is more costly and time-consuming than that of sperm. Also, females invest more resources into offspring, therefore, they must be choosy and by mating with high-quality male they enhance the quality of their offspring. Since the number of available females limits male reproduction success males have to court and compete for the females. Trivers suggested that the level of competition among males is correlated with the imbalance of parental investment. For example, there is a great difference in body size between male and female elephant seals where one male can guard 40 females, resulting in strong male-male competition. (Le Boeuf, 1974). Trivers theory can be applied to bird species like pharalorpes and wading birds where it is the females who are bigger, more colourful and aggressive compete with each other for males and males take care of the offspring (Jenni, 1974). Importance of sexual selection theory: it was disregarded for the most part of 20th century and many science and humanities subjects were advanced without taking sexual selection into account, thus, many theories may need to be revised. Ridley, M., 1993, Evolution, Ch12 Adaptations in sexual reproduction Traits that reduce survivorship are deleterious and are mainly present in males as secondary sexual characteristics that are not actually necessary for reproduction; however, they may give an advantage in mate competition with other males. The most famous example of secondary sexual characteristics is peacocks tail but also colourful plumage of birds, big antlers in elks etc. Although these traits are costly they have not been eliminated by natural selection. Darwins sexual selection theory suggests that the disadvantages in having elaborate secondary sexual characteristics are evened out because they convey a benefit in gaining access to females and increasing reproductive success. Darwin distributes sexual selection into two categories: male competition and female choice. Darwin argued that secondary sexual characteristics would be more developed in polygamous species where typically one male mates with several females because the selection for male traits that enhance reproduction will be greater. He provided evidence for sexual selection by comparing polygamous and monogamous species and showed that in the former males tend to have brighter colouring, ornaments and larger bodies whereas in the latter males and females differ less. Another theory that tries to explain mate choice criteria is Zahavis handicap theory (Zahavi, 1975). According to this, only males with good genes can survive with a handicapping trait, such as peacocks tail and females will prefer to mate with them. Selection will favour males with handicap traits if their good genes outweigh the cost of the trait. The high cost of handicapping character makes it an honest indicator of males quality. In his model the preferred male trait was costly to begin with and the expense did not change as the trait became more desired in females. Archer,J, Lloyd, B, 2002, Sex and gender, Ch 3 Origins Sexual selection entails female choice and females should choose mates according to their ability to provide the female and her offspring with resources and protection. Buss (1989) studied human mate preferences in 37 cultures and concluded that there is a strong trend for females valuing mates with greater financial capacity, ambition and sense of entrepreneurship. Archer and Lloyd suggest that this is consistent with Triverss theory where females are interested in finding a partner who would be able to invest more parental care into offspring by providing resources. Males preferred physical attractiveness and youth, which are traits correlated with reproductive capacity (Buss, 1989). Miller, G.F., 2000, The mating mind: How sexual choice shaped the evolution of human nature Darwin became interested in different animal ornamentation that he encountered on his around-the-world-trip on the board of the Beagle. In 1871 he published The decent of man, and selection in relation to sex where amongst other topics he wrote about sexual selection. Sexual selection shapes each sex in relation to the other sex. Many of Darwins ideas were attacked but after a century it was rediscovered. Dawkins, R., 1989, The selfish gene, Battle of the sexes One of the main female strategies of reproduction is that instead of expecting help from the male to raise the offspring the female prefers good genes instead. If a female can detect good quality males by using visual cues than her offspring will receive on better genetic material. By doing so the likelihood of her genes to survive increases too. Emlen, S.T., Oring, L.W., 1977, Ecology, sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems Environmental factors affect the development of mating systems and ultimately the intensity of sexual selection. Fitness is a measure for individuals reproductive success in relation to that of other individuals. Male reproductive success is limited by the access to females, whereas female reproductive success is determined by the available resources. Subsequently, if females limit the reproduction of males then the competition and sexual selection will intensify in males. The ability of a male to protect territory or other resources attracts more females and causes differences in the mating success of other males. The presence of polygamous and monogamous mating systems depends on environmental factors such as the availability of receptive mates and the distribution of resources in time and space, which affects their defensibility. Polygamy is more common in species where one sex is does not invest parental care, and thus, can spend time and energy on defending resources and competi ng for mates. Emlen and Oring (1977) suggest that sexual selection is stronger in polygamous species than in monogamous species. They point out that the more one sex manages to monopolize resources the stronger becomes sexual selection and the more likely is the development of polygamous mating system. Moreover, the mating system can differ between populations of the same species due to variations in environmental setting, population structure and density, amount and distribution of resources that all change the potential of monopolization. Andersson, M., Iwasa, Y., 1996, Sexual selection Sexual selection occurs through competition over mates, which is also the underlying factor of different mechanisms of sexual selection. Andersson and Iwasa (1996) list these different mechanisms: firstly, female and male choice of mate that has been demonstrated in numerous studies acts to favour traits that attract mates from the opposite sex; secondly, contests that can take the form of direct fighting and favour traits such as large body size, physical stamina, weaponry and other characteristics that enhance fighting ability in the competing sex; thirdly, endurance rivalry that promotes traits to retain reproductive activeness for longer to increase the possibility of mating. Furthermore, they also suggest scramble competition that promotes traits that help in finding the mate before others, such as earlier maturation or better locomotion skills. In addition, other mechanisms are infanticide, coercion and sperm competition. As Andersson and Iwasa (1996) point out, the majority of research has concerned mate choice and mate competition, whereas other mechanisms of sexual selection remain poorly examined. Owens and Thompson (1994) suggest that optimal mate choice is a trade-off between the number of mates and their quality. They argue that both males and females can be picky; however, the selection will be greater in the sex with higher reproductive rate. Batemans gradient explains the differential intensity of sexual selection in males and females. In his studies with Drosophila, Bateman showed that sexual selection is typically stronger in males because the number of offspring fathered by a male increases proportionally with the number of males, whereas the number of offspring remains the same for the female regardless of the amount of males she mates. Male secondary sexual characteristics may become more pronounced if they increase their reproductive success, although if it reduces the overall viability. The costs of these characteristics include higher threat of predation; large bodies pose higher energetic demands and increase the likelihood of starvation during the growth period; competition may lead to injuries and death. Thus, the extent of secondary sexual characteristics is limited by their costliness and by sexual selection itself if one favoured trait starts to compromise another selected trait. Sexual selection affects the genetic make-up of the offspring and thus, is an important factor in evolution. It is currently very difficult to discriminate between the different mechanisms of sexual selection and their importance.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Jet Airways :: Case Study

Introduction: Accounting is the pillar of every company to measure its growth, loss, revenue , capital, its really specify the real terms in foam of figures and sometimes in tables, in accounting there are certain rules are obtained to make more accuracy while playing with figures. To apply and the all ‘ rules of game‘of an business we taking an aviation company known as â€Å"Jet Airways† before we get into, here are some intro points about this company. History: Jet Airways was found in 1st April 1992 by Mr. Naresh Goyal and they started their operation after one year may 5th 1993, Jet began international operations from Chennai to Colombo in March 2004. The company was listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange Jet airways India’s second major airline in terms of market shares after Indigo airlines based at Mumbai known as India’s economic capital in addition to being its India’s widest network with 3000 flights a day with 76 destinations worldwide, main operations are handle from Mumbai but secondary hubs are Delhi (Nation Capital of India) Kolkata and Bangalore, It has an international hub at Brussels Airport, Belgium. Founder &Management: Naresh Goyal, the founder Chairman of Jet Airways, India’s premier airline, has over 4 decades of experience in the Civil Aviation industry. After graduating in commerce in 1967. Mr Goyal begin his travel business with GSA for Lebanese international airline, himself chairman holding 80% of company shares. Currently this airline running with six boards of directors: 1. Mr. Javed Akthar 2. Mr. Iftikar M. Kadr 3. Mr. Aman Mehta 4. Mr. James Hogan 5. Mr. Gaurang Shetty 6. Mr. James Rigney After an overview of jet airways now we mould its ratios and figures: Accounting Principles & Standards: Accounting principles are main consideration , certain standards like rules of operations are pillar characteristicis to built accounting statements. Accounting principles can be presented in many ways, sometimes its create confusion for readers mainly for beginners, but still acoounting principles are main tool to obtained financial statements. Its hold the whole acoounting process together. In order to make useful, there are some characteristics such as being practical and dependable. As a dependable for it must be acurate, unbiased and verifiable and practically accounting information must be compareable, prepared in a time frame, user friendly, consistent and able to differentiate. In accounting beside these characteristics, certain operational rules are obtained are following: †¢ How a firm matched their revenue with expenses †¢ At what time expenses are revenue has been reported

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Plato vs. St. Augustine of Hippo Essay

Our world has developed and flourished by the thoughts and contributions of many leaders. Among those leaders were Saint Augustine and Pluto. For many historians, Plato’s Allegory of the Cave and Augustine’s The City of God, are historical pieces that point out what had happened during ancient times. These pieces are significant because they shed some light on different thoughts and beliefs of people. Even though these works do not have similar world views, they attempt to show guidance to human life and to their beliefs. In Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, he teaches a world view with an example of a cave filled with darkness that people inside should get out by finding the truth and seeing the light. On the other hand, in Augustine’s The City of God, a Christian author, perceived this world as a place where the heavens and the earth coexist. Even though they both showed some similarities on the concept of dualism, these two philosophers had quite different principles and foundational beliefs. Augustine lived in the time around the fourth century. He was born in Tagaste, a Roman province in northern Africa. During his life time, the Roman Empire was on the verge of weakening and later collapsed for good. And according to Brian Levack, one of the main reason for the collapse of the once great empire was due to invasion from many sides in addition to the â€Å"unwise decisions, weak leadership, and Military Failure† in the empire (Levack 190). During this time, Constantine (AD 272-337) strived to Christianize the Roman Empire and thus Christianity was spreading all over the empire; however, there were debates and disagreements in the doctrine of Christianity and thus there existed splits among Christians that gave rise to the division in the Roman Empire. It was during this time the idea of Monasticism and Donatism flourished. Greek and Roman philosophical thoughts existed in the fourth century. The origin of the philosophy is traced back to the classical age of Greece. At that time, many thoughts emanated from different philosophers, each with their own views. However, as many would agree, Plato (ca.429-327  B.C.E) was the most prominent philosophers in the realm of ancient philosophy. He was influenced by the scientific thoughts of people that existed long before him. Since Plato was a student of Socrates, his teachings and beliefs have paved a way for Plato which in turn influenced Aristotle. Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, clearly explains his philosophical thoughts and understanding. Basically, this work is a dialogue between Socrates, his mentor, and Glaucon (Plato’s brother). The work paints a picture of prisoners tightly chained in a cave in an attempt to describe the nature of justice –one of the â€Å"absolute forms.† Above these prisoners is a fire that casts a shadow of objects that pass through the way between the fire and them. He describes that for the prisoners that are unable to see anything but only the shadows casted by the objects on the wall of the cave. Plato further explains that if any one among the prisoners is set free and is forced to look up to the light, he will be suffer from its glitter on his eyes till he adjusts to it. If told that what he used to observe in the caves was an illusion, he will not be well convinced and would rather choose to go back to the cave where he will claim what he sees in the cave is a reality . However, if he is forced to stay in the world above, he will see the reality, the objects themselves: â€Å"And first he will see the shadows best, next the reflections of men and other objects in the water, and then the objects themselves.† After having a thorough understanding of the reality in the above world, if he returned back to the cave, his vision will be filled with darkness and requires time to adjust. And even if he does, he, along with his ideas and believes will not be accepted among other prisoners. As mentioned above the works and contributions of these philosophical thoughts and ideologies had shaped influential people in the world of Christianity and among them was Augustine. In his early days, his parents sent him to Carthage for his rhetorical education. During his stay, he was struck by the search for truth. And this quest led him to the probe in to the Manichaeism ideology which was widely spread at the time. However, after discovering that the ideology could not bring the solutions what he was longing for, he become interested in neo-Platonic ideas while he was in Milan. This interest of his compelled him to become a Neo-Platonist (Gonzalez 210). During the time of Augustine, Christianity was spreading through the Roman Empire before the time of its downfall. Also, divisions occurred in the Empire after the death of Constantine, who is credited for his attempt to unify the churches in the Empire. Levack mentions that the Huns, Alaric and Vandals played great role that contributed for the collapse of the once great empire in the year A.D 410(191). In addition to this, many sources point out many reasons for downfall of the Empire, but most of them point their fingers at the transformation of the Empire to Christianity. According to historians, Polytheist claims that Christians were more interested to serve God than the Empire and have a sense of forgiveness towards enemies. Therefore both polytheist and pagans stressed that the Christian God failed to protect the Empire. In an attempt to prove Christianity was not a threat, and also to clear the misconception about the allegation that the Church profoundly contributed to the Roman collapse, Augustine wrote The City of God. Basically, the work mainly revolves around two cities: The Earthly city and the Heavenly city. The earthly city is a typical example of a place, presumably inhabited by pagans and polytheist and is found on earth. On the contrary, the heavenly city sojourns on earth. He makes a comparison between the two. He says that both are formed by two loves: â€Å"the earthly by the love of self† and that of the heavenly by the love of God. While the earthly city pleasures from the glorification of itself and its men, the heavenly counterpart pleasures in the glorification of God. The earthly operates on its own; that is, with the power, wisdom and rule of men while the heavenly is fully dependent on God. Augustine criticizes men of the earthly city for excessive pride in their own wis dom and for unthinkable representations of the image of God they made to worship, and this men that he is referring to are neo-Platonists. Augustine explains the two opposing aspects that exist in the city: peace and Conflict. He mentions that the earthly city is characterized by arguments, wars, and quarrels. Although victories over such aspects exist, he claims that it is either â€Å"life destroying† or â€Å"short-lived.† On the contrary, he points out that the heavenly city is characterized by the existence of everlasting victory and â€Å"never-ending† peace. He sets a clear demarcation between different aspects of both the heavenly and earthly cities. He explains the necessity to live by faith so as to escape the distraction of  that surrounds to deceive families. During his time, since the idea of monasticism and pilgrimage was well known, he encourages that families practice these idea to their advantage to gain heavenly blessings and everlasting peace, and lessen the burdens of the body, a prominent goals of all human beings that live in both cities. However, he contends that their appro aches are totally different: the earthly city has its own set of rules designed by the will and desires of men. Also, the earthly city has ideologies and principles set forth by philosophers, such as polytheists, who Augustine thinks are foolish for their earthly wisdom and understanding of the truth, and yet deceived themselves would also deceive the inhabitants of the earthly city: â€Å"the earthly city has had some philosophers whose doctrine is condemned by the divine teaching, and who, being deceived†¦supposed that many gods must be invited to take part in the interest in human affairs†¦Ã¢â‚¬  furthermore he explains that there would always a discord between both cities, and everlasting peace on earth could be attained through the unity in worshiping one God. Augustine’s City of God was one of his influence works that left positive marks on the thoughts and beliefs of many generations after him. According to Michael W. Goheen and Craig G. Bartholomew in Living at the Crossroads, he played a vital role in influencing the thoughts of many that provided structures for med ieval culture. But still they point out that this work of his is a combination of elements of Scripture and neo-Platonism (77). This shades some light on how he was deeply influenced by Greek and Roman Philosophical thoughts prevalent during his time. Besides, Goheen and Bartholomew argue that Augustine’s deep immersion in neo-platonic thoughts had an adverse effect on the development of western culture (77). This is evident in most of his works that â€Å"bore a [n]eo-Platonic stamp† (Gonzalez 212). Finally, if it was not for Augustine’s works, the Christianity that we have today might be different. It was through his work that became an influential theologian that paved the way for both medieval and modern Christianity: Walsh and Middleton label him as â€Å"the father of middle ages† (111). Although some say that his immersion in neo-platonic thoughts had negative consequences, Gonzalez points out that he was the most quoted theologian in the Middle Ages and thus â€Å"became one of the great doctors of the Roman Catholic Church† (216). It cannot be denied that his biblical world view has some stains of platonic philosophical  views; however, some of these thoughts have some similarity to th e bible. For instance, Plato assumed that there is a supernatural power which he labels as the â€Å"One† which is the reason for the existence of everything. Besides, he point out that there is another world beyond human existence –a world which he calls the â€Å"above world,† which exists at a higher level beyond the existence of humans. This assumption is akin to that of what the bible states as the Heavens. Thus, although Augustine’s works, thoughts and world views are deeply influenced be Greek and Roman Philosophies, he is still the â€Å"favorite theologian† and the most prominent figures for his significant contributions profoundly contributed to the realm of Christianity. As a Christian, I was surprised to discover that how these works are still influential in our world today. Furthermore, these works will broaden the minds of Christians in terms of the history of Christianity and its doctrine. Finally I contend that these historical pieces will gi ve a slight sense of the theological and philosophical world views and broadens ones understanding. Works Cited Augustine. â€Å"The City of God-excerpts on the Two Cities†, Medieval Sourcebook, July 1998. Stephen, Cooper. Augustine for Armchair Theologians, 2002. Print. Plato. â€Å"The Allegory of the cave†, The History Guide, May 2004. Goheen, Michael W., and Craig G. Bartholomew. Living at the Crossroads. Grand Rapids: Baker Publishing Group, 2008. Print. Gonalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity. Peabody: Prince Press, 2007. Print. Levack, Brian, Edward Muir, Meredith Veldman, and Michael Mass. The West. N.p.: Pearson Education, 2007. Print. Walsh, Brian J., and Richard Middleton. The Transforming Vision. Downers Grove: Inter Varsity Press, 1984. Print.